Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Investigation on Synergistic effect of Carbon Black on Flow properties of EPDM Composite

A. Murugesan, K. Rajasekaran, R. Anbarasan, A. Fasil


Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer is one of the most widely used rubbers in automotive exterior sealing systems. It is the material of choice for automotive sponge weather strips around doors, trunks and hoods. Its exceptional air and ozone resistance capabilities, combined with its compounding adaptability, result in high-performing profiles at a low cost, while sealing off water, dirt, and noise for the life of the vehicle. Over the last decade, advances in metallocene polymerization technique have allowed for more exact control of molecular architecture and co monomer introduction, allowing for the creation of high-performance elastomers with customised qualities. In this present research investigation, vulacnizates based on Ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber was prepared by incorporating 30 phr of cellulose short fibers along with different loading level of fast extrusion furnace black (FEF) at an increment level of 20 phr in a two roll mill. The effect of CB (FEF) on viscosity and rheological properties of various EPDM compounds such as C1 to C8 were fairly investigated by using the Monsanto moving die rheometer (MDR 2000) according to ASTM method D 2084 and also Mooney viscometer. The curing characteristics like TS2, TS5, ML, MH, cure time (TC90) and viscosity of various EPDM compounds were extensively determined and also the results were critically compared with each other. It was fairly observed that the reinforcement of CB along with cellulose short fibres in the EPDM compounds have made greater impact on improving the rheological properties and showed the synergistic effect between the fillers and the rubber matrix.


Cure time, Cellulose short fibres, Carbon black, Fillers, Vulcanizate, Viscosity

Full Text:



Wan C., Zhang Y., Zhu Y., Cure Characteristics and Mechanical Properties of NR/SBR Blends Filled with Nano-sized CaCO3, Prog. in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Tech. 2005; 21(2): 101–115.

Murugesan A., Mohankumar G., Rajasekaran K., Synergistic effect of Cellulose short fiber / Carbon Black on Rheological and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber Composite. J. of Advanced Research and Dynamics control. 2019; 6 (1): 814–822.

Murugesan A, Gandhi S, Baskaran R, Effect of Nature of Short Fibers / Carbon Black on Curing Characteristics and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Rubber Composite. J. polym. composites. 2016; 4(2):34–43.

Ashori A. Wood-plastic Composites as Promising Green-composites for Automotive Industries. Bioresour Technol. 2008; 99(1): 4661–4667

Zhang, H., Wang, J., Cao, S., Toughened polypropylene with balanced rigidity. IV. Morphology, crystallization behavior, and thermal properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. 2001; 79(8): 1351–1358.

Shariatpanahi, H., Nazokdast, H., Hemmati, M. Dispersed Phase Particle Size in Polymer Blends: Interfacial and Rheological Effects. J. of Elastomers and Plastics. 2003 ;35(2):115–31.

George, S., Joseph, R., Thomas, S., Blends of isotactic polypropylene and nitrile rubber: morphology, mechanical properties and compatibilization. Polymer. 1995; 36(23): 4405–4416.

Madani, M., Effect of γ-irradiation on the Properties of Rubber- Based Conductive Blend Composites. Polymers & Polymer Composites. 2004 ;12(6): 525–534.

Kolarik, J., Jancar, J. Ternary composites of polypropylene/elastomer/calcium carbonate: effect of functionalized components on phase structure and mechanical properties. Polymer. 1992; 33(23): 4961–4967.

Wong, S.C., Mai, Y.M. Effect of Rubber Functionality on Microstructures and Fracture Toughness of Impact Modified Nylon 6,6 /PP Blends Part I Structure-Property Relationships. Polymer. 1996; 40(6): 1553–1566.

AL-Gahtani S.A. Mechanical Properties of Acrylonitrile butadiene/ Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Blends: Effects of Blend Ratio and Filler Addition. Journal of American Science. 2011; 7(8): 804–809.

Pukanszky, B. Influence of Interface Interaction on the Ultimate Tensile Properties of Polymer. Composites. 1990; 21(3): 255–262.

Mostafa A., Abouel-Kasem A., Bayoumi M.R., Rubber-Filler Interactions and Its Effect in Rheological and Mechanical Properties of Filled Compounds. J. of Testing and Evaluation. 2010; 38(3):1–14.

Kohjiya, S., Kato, A., Ikeda, Y. Visualization of Nanostructure of Soft Matter by 3D-TEM: Nanoparticles in a Natural Rubber Matrix. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2008; 33(10): 979–997.

Toki, S., Burger, C., Hsiao, B. S., Multi-Scaled Microstructures in Natural Rubber Characterized by Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering and Optical Microscopy,” J. Polym. Sci., Part B:Polym. Phys., 2008; 46(22): 2456–2464

Surve, M., Pryamitsyn, V., Ganesan, V. Polymer-Bridged Gels of Nanoparticles in Solutions of Adsorbing Polymers. J.Chem. Phys. 2006; 125(6): 064903

Montes, S., White, J. L., Nakajima, N. Rheological Behaviour of Rubber Carbon Black Compounds in Various Shear Histories. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 1988; 28(2): 183–212.

Litvinov V. M., Steeman P. A. M. EPDM-carbon black interactions and the reinforcement mechanisms, as studied by low-resolution 1H NMR. Macromolecules. 1999; 32(25): 8476–8490.

Barlow F. W. Rubber compounding: Principles, materials, and techniques. New York: CRC Press; 1988.

Wolff S., Wang M. J. Filler-elastomer interactions. Part III: Carbon-black-surface energies and interactions with elastomer analogs. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1991; 64(5) 714–735.

Wolff S., Wang M. J. Filler-elastomer interactions. Part IV: The effect of the surface energies of fillers on elastomer reinforcement. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1992; 65 (2): 329– 342.

Wolff S. Chemical aspects of rubber reinforcement by fillers. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1996; 69(3): 325–346.

Fröhlich J., Niedermeier W., Luginsland H. D. The effect of filler-filler and filler-elastomer interaction on rubber reinforcement. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing. 2005; 36(4): 449–460.

Wolff, S., Wang, M.J., Tan, E.H. Filler-elastomer interactions. Part VII. Study on bound rubber. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1993; 66(2): 163–177.

Wolf, S., Wang, M.J., Tan, E.H. Surface Energy of Fillers and Its Effect on Rubber Reinforcement; Part 1. Kautsch. Gummi Kunstst. 1994; 47(11): 780–798.

Akiba M., Hashim A. S. Vulcanization and crosslinking in elastomers. Progress in Polymer Science. 1997; 22(23): 475–521.

Kraus, G. Reinforcement of Elastomers by Carbon Black. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1978; 51(2): 297–321.

El-Tantawy, F., Dishovsky, N. Novel Vshaped negative temperature coefficient of conductivity thermistors and electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness from butyl rubber–loaded boron carbide ceramic composites. J. of Applied Polymer Science.2004; 91(5): 2756–2770.

Medalia; A.I., Kraus; G. The Science and Technology of Rubber. J.E. Mark, B. Ermanand F.R. Eirich, Eds. San Diego: Academic Press; 1994.

Madani, M., Aly, R.A. Monitoring of the physical aging of radiation cross-linked conductive rubber blends containing clay nano filler. Materials & Design. 2010; 31 (3): 1444–1449.

Leblanc J. L., Rubber-filler interactions and rheological properties in filled compounds. Progress in Polymer Science. 2002; 27(4): 627–687.

Park S-J., Kim J-S. Role of chemically modified carbon black surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion between carbon black and rubber in a composite system. J. of Colloid and Interface Science. 2000; 232(2): 311–316.

Liu, X.; Zhao, J.; Yang, R.; Effect of Lubricating Oil on Thermal Aging of Nitrile Rubber. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 2018; 151: 136–143.

He, S.; Bai, F.; Liu, S.; Aging Properties of Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Nanocomposites Filled with Carbon Black and Rectorite. Polym. Test. 2017; 64: 92–100.

Yip, E.; Cacioli, P. The Manufacture of Gloves from Natural Rubber Latex. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2002; 110(2): S3–S14.

Idris, R.; Glasse, M.D.; Latham, R.J.; Polymer Electrolytes Based on Modified Natural Rubber for Use in Rechargeable Lithium Batteries. J. Power Sources 2001; 94(2): 206–211.

Molnar, W.; Varga, M.; Braun, P.; Correlation of Rubber Based Conveyor Belt Properties and Abrasive Wear Rates under 2- and 3-Body Conditions. Wear 2014; 320: 1–6.

Mott, P.H.; Roland, C.M. Elasticity of Natural Rubber Networks. Macromolecules 2016; 29(21): 6941–6945.

Dunuwila, P.; Rodrigo, V.H.L.; Goto, N. Sustainability of Natural Rubber Processing Can Be improved: A Case Study with Crepe Rubber Manufacturing in Sri Lanka. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 2018; 133: 417–427.


  • There are currently no refbacks.