Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Assessment of Smallholder Cassava Farmers’ Market Participation Intensity in Delta State, Nigeria

Robert Awotu Egware, Grace Oghenerobor Alufohai


The study assessed the decision and level of participation in the cassava market by smallholder farmers in Delta State, Nigeria. It focused on such specific objectives as to describe the socio-economic characteristics of smallholder cassava farmers in the study area, determine the level of market participation by smallholder cassava farmers, determine the factors that influence market participation by the farmers and identify the constraints the farmers face in the process of participating in the market. Data were elicited from 460 smallholder cassava farmers in 9 out of the 25 local government areas of Delta State. Data obtained were analysed using Double-Hurdle Model. Analysis showed that the number of years in school (P <0.10) among others significantly influenced the decision of participating in the market. Also, the intensity of market participation behaviour in the region was significantly influenced by the size of the household (P <0.10), total annual household income (P <0.05) and others. 


Cassava, Double-hurdle model, Intensity, Market participation, Smallholder farmers

Full Text:



Makhura MT. Overcoming transaction costs barriers to market participation of smallholder farmers in the northern province of South Africa, [PhD Thesis], Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 2001.

Dorward A, Morrison J, Kyad JU. Market institutions and technology missing links in livelihoods analysis. Dev Policy Rev. 2003; 21(3): 319–332.

Machethe CL. Agriculture and poverty in South Africa: Can agriculture reduce poverty? 2004, Retrieved April 9, 2007, from: docs 1/sfcle/eodoc 357114047 pdf.

Dorosh P, Haggblade S. Growth linkages, price effects and income distribution in sub-Saharan Africa. J Afr Eco. 2003; 12(2): 207–235.

Mathenge M, Frank P, Olwande J, et al. Market Participation among poor rural households in Kenya. World Agroforestry Centre, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development, Egerton University and World Agroforestry Centre, Study Report, 2010.

Ohen SB. The structure, conduct and performance of rice marketing system in Cross River and Ebonyi States, Nigeria. Unpublished [Ph.D. thesis], Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Calabar, Nigeria, 2008.

Obisesan AA. Cassava marketing and rural poverty among smallholder farmers in Southwest, Nigeria. Bull Environ Pharm Life Sci. 2012; 1(8): 29–34.

Ukpongson MA, Chikaire J, Anaeto FC, et al. Effects of cassava processing and value-added products on sustainable poverty alleviation in Ikwuano Area of Abia State, Nigeria. New York Sci J. 2011; 4(11): 73–77.

Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO). Food for consumers: Marketing, processing and distribution. Technical Background Document No. 8, World Food Summit, 1996; 13-17 November. Rome, Italy

Nweke FI. Cassava, a cash crop in Africa. Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA), Working Paper No. 14. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria, 1996.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Promoting market access for rural poor in order to achieve the millennium development goals. Paper presented in a seminar on the 25th Anniversary Session of the Governing Council of IFAD, Rome, Italy. 2003; April 16–18.

Ferris RSB, Okoboi G, Crissman C, et al. Uganda’s Irish potato sector, a paper prepared by IITA-FOODNET, CIP, PRAPACE, CGIAR and ASARECA at the Government of Uganda’s Conference on Competitiveness of Selected Strategic Exports, 2001.

Nkonya E, Kato E. Agricultural input marketing in Uganda. A paper presented at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) Workshop, Kampala, Uganda, 2001; June 25–26.

Aliguma L, Magala D, Lwasa S. Connecting small-scale producers to markets: The case of the Nyabyumba United Farmers’ Group in Kabale District, Uganda. Uganda Agricultural Economics Association (UAEA) Conference Proceedings. 2007; August 12–16.

Barrett CB. Smallholder market participation: Concepts and evidence from Eastern and Southern Africa. Food Policy, 2008; 33(4): 299–317.

Wickramasiughe U, Omot N, Patiken, et al. Market participation of smallholder agricultural households in Papua New Guinea. 2014; CAPSA Working Paper No. 108. Centre for Alleviation of Poverty through Sustainable Agriculture (CAPSA)-Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) of the United Nations. Jalan Merdeka 145, Bogor 16111, Indonesia.

Delta State Ministry of Information. Information bulletin. Delta State printing press, 1999; 4p.

National Bureau of Statistics. Projected Population by States (2012-2016), Demographic Bulletin, Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2017; Pg. 7.

Schultz TW. Agriculture in an unstable Economy. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York. 1945.

Southworth HM, Johnston BF. Agricultural Development and Economic Growth. Cornell University Press, U.K. 1967.

Ofori IM. Factors of Agricultural Growth in West Africa. ISSER, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana. 1973.

Randela R, Alemu ZG, Grunewald JA. Factors enhancing market participation by small-scale cotton farmers. Agrekon. 2008; 47(4): 453–469.

Enete AA, Igbokwe EM. Cassava market participation decision of producing households in Africa. Tropicultura. 2009; (27): 129–136.

Boughton D, Mather D, Barrett CB, et al. Market Participation by rural households in a low-income country: an asset-based approach applied to Mozambique. Faith Eco. 2007; (50): 64–101.

Abu BM, Osei-Asare YB, Wayo S. Market participation of smallholder maize farmers in the Upper-West region of Ghana. Afr J Agr Res. 2014; 9(31): 2427–2435.

Abu BM. Market participation of smallholder farmers in the upper-west region of Ghana. An [Unpublished Thesis], Submitted to the University of Ghana, Legon in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of master of Philosophy degree in agricultural economics, Department of agricultural economics and agribusiness, college of agriculture and consumer sciences, university of Ghana, Legon, 2013.

Siziba S, Kefasi N, Diagne, et al. Determinants of cereal market participation by sub-Saharan Africa smallholder farmer. Learning Publics J Agr Environ Studies. 2011; 2(1): 180–193.

Olwande J, Mathenge M. Market participation among the poor rural households in Kenya. Selected paper prepared for presentation at the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) Triennial Conference, Foz do Iguaco, Brazil, 2012, 18-24 August.

Matungal PM, Lyne MC, Ortmann GF. Transaction costs and crop marketing in the communal areas of Impendle and Swayimana, KwaZulu Natal. Dev Southern Afr. 2001; 18(3): 347–363.

Reyes B, Donovan C, Bernsten, et al. Market participation and sale of potatoes by smallholder farmers in the central highlands of Angola: A Double Hurdle Approach. In Selected Paper presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) Triennial Conference, Brazil. 2012; (18-24 August).

Okoye BC, Abass A, Bachwenkizi B, et al. Effect of transaction costs on market participation among smallholder cassava farmers in Central Madagascar. Cogent Eco Finance. 2016; (4): 1143597.

Key N, Sadoulet E, de Janvry A. Transactions costs and agricultural household supply response. Am J Agr Eco. 2000; 82(2): 245–59.

Eswaran M, Kotwal A. Access to capital and agrarian production organization. Eco J. 1986; 96(382): 482–98

Martey E, Al-hassan RM, Kuwornu JKM. Commercialization of smallholder agriculture in Ghana A Tobit regression analysis. Afr J Agr Res. 2012; 7(14): 2131–2141.

Alene AD, Manyong VM, Omanya G, et al. Smallholder market participation under transactions costs: Maize supply and fertilizer demand in Kenya. Food Policy. 2008; 33(4): 318–328.

Omiti JM, Otieno DJ, Nyanamba TO, et al. Factors influencing the intensity of market participation by smallholder farmers: A case study of rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya. Afr J Agr Resource Eco. 2009; 3(1): 57–82.

Rios AR, Shively GE, Masters, W.A. Linkages between market participation and productivity: results from a multi-country farm household sample. The AAEA Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, 27-29 July, 2008.

Sebatta C, Mugisha J, Katungi E, et al. Smallholder Farmers’ Decision and Level of Participation in the Potato Market in Uganda. Mod Eco. 2014; (5): 895–906.

Leavy J, Poulton C. Commercialization in Agriculture. Ethiopean J Eco. 2007; XVI(1): 3–41.

Simtowe F, Paul BK, Wimba BMM, et al. Determinants of participation in cavy marketing: evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo. J Agr Rural Dev Tropics Subtropics. 2017; 118(2): 245–257.

Tesfaw A. Determinants of agricultural commodity market supply: a case study in the upper watershed of the Blue Nile, North-western Ethiopia J Agribusiness Rural Dev. 2013; 4(30): 243–256.

Omiti JM, Otieno DJ, Nyanamba TO, et al. Factors influencing the intensity of market participation by smallholder farmers: A case study of rural and peri-urban areas of Kenya. Afr J Agric Resource Eco. 2009; 3(1): 57–82.

Efa GT, Degye G, Tinsae D, et al. Determinants of market participation and intensity of marketed surplus of teff producers in Bacho and Dawo districts of Oromia State, Ethiopia. J Agr Eco Dev. 2016; 5(2): 020–032.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Research & Reviews: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology