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Ground Water Contamination in Shallow Aquifer of Punjab State With Special Reference to Uranium

Rishi Raj, Sudhir K Srivastava, Anoop Nagar


In Punjab State ground water is in general suitable for drinking uses except at few places in the southern and south western parts where it is not suitable due to high EC or high fluoride or nitrate or combination of all. Almost all ground waters are suitable for irrigation for growing crops like wheat, mustard, rice, barley and maize etc. However, at few places where EC of ground water goes beyond 5000 µS/cm, and SAR is more than 10, water is not suitable for customary irrigation. Uranium is a naturally occurring radioactive metal that occurs in low concentrations in nature. It is present in certain types of soils and rocks, especially granites. High concentration of uranium in the body has been linked to chronic kidney disease. In the state of Punjab, Uranium concentration in 302 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0–156 μgl−1with an average of 21.94 μgl−1. Data analysis revealed that 74 of 302 samples had uranium concentration higher than recommended safe limit of 30 μgl−1, while 18 of 302samples exceeded the threshold limit of 60 μgl−1 recommended by AERB, DAE, India.


Ground water Quality, Contamination, Uranium, Anthropogenic, Geogenic.

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