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Sodium benzoate induced reproductive and metabolic changes in Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792)

Vijaya kumar N, Amritha K, Priyatha C.V, Chitra K C



Sodium benzoate is an effective antimicrobial agent used as a food preservative, but recently gained attention as the chemical toxicant. The present study investigated sodium benzoate induced male reproductive toxicity and metabolic changes at100 mg/ L concentration in the freshwater fish, Anabas testudineus. Sodium benzoate did not alter the weight of fish but increased the secretion of mucous as the primary defensive mechanism. Reduction in the absolute and relative weights of liver and testis reflected the tissue-specific toxicity of the compound. Sodium benzoate altered spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis as evidenced by reduction in sperm count, sperm motility and sperm viability along with reduction in testicular steroidogenic enzymes, 3β- and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that ultimately restrain fertilizing capacity and membrane integrity of sperm. Alteration in the activities of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase, and monoamine oxidase enzymes indicated metabolic changes, while liver damage was proved by increase in the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases. Histomorphology of testis showed reduction in the number of spermatogonia and spermatocytes, degeneration of seminiferous tubules and seminiferous epithelium, without distinct Sertoli cells and interstitial cells. Histology of liver revealed disorganized hepatocytes, mild vacuolization, segmentation, and necrosis. The current study portrayed the impact of sodium benzoate on male reproduction andhepatic metabolic enzymes in the freshwater fish, A. testudineus. The study provides a better insight for the risk assessment of sodium benzoate in aquatic organism, and can be used as environmental monitoring tool in the natural population.


Keywords: Sodium benzoate, liver, testis, reproduction, metabolic enzymes, Anabas testudineus

Cite this Article

Vijaya kumar N, Amritha K, Priyatha C.V, Chitra K.C. Sodium benzoate induced reproductive and metabolic changes in Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792). Research & Reviews: A Journal of Life Sciences. 2020; 10(1): 56–71p.


Sodium benzoate, liver, testis, reproduction, metabolic enzymes, Anabas testudineus

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