Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Comprehensive Review on Covid-19 Evolution and Development

Sarepalli Sai Sathwik, Tulasi Nikshitha, Thipurani Murali Krishna


The emerging pandemic causing flu-like symptoms in patients is caused by the novel Coronavirus that was previously called 2019-nCoV. The mutated gene of SARS-CoV was transformed to SARS-CoV-2 in animals and further transmitted to humans in the month of December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. Eventually, the novel coronavirus spread all around the globe as a highly contagious disease. COVID-19 (the illness caused by Coronavirus) has affected 213 countries and territories around the world. There are about 18,852,205 new positive cases, 707,451 casualties, 12,032,508 recoveries till date that is, 05th August 2020. This virus resulted in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ dysfunction. Human transmissions are caused due to inhaling or by contact with viral droplets. The infected patient seems to show an incubation period of 2–14 days. Due to this ominous situation, several countries got shut down to contain the spread of novel coronavirus. This review article includes the etiology, epidemiology, detection and diagnosis, histopathology, pathophysiology of novel coronavirus. To control the virus, many drugs are in use. Short-term testing kits have been discovered by many countries using the Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Vaccines from numerous research laboratories are at the stage of human trails. This review article can be preferred for further investigation on coronavirus.


acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), COVID-19, etiology, epidemiology, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, novel Coronavirus, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

Full Text:



Chan JFW, Kok KH, Zhu Z, Chu H, To KKW, Yuan S, Yuen KY. Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020; 9(1): 221–236p. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902.

K. Ramanathan et al., “Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this for unrestricted research re-use a,” no. January, pp. 19–21, 2020.

Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.

Chan JFW, To KKW, Tse H, Jin DY, Yuen KY. Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: Lessons from bats and birds. Trends Microbiol. 2013; 21(10): 544–555p. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2013.05.005.

Zhang T, Wu Q, Zhang Z. Probable Pangolin Origin of SARS-CoV-2 Associated with the COVID-19 Outbreak. Curr Biol. 2020; 30(7): 13461351p. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022.

World Health Organization. Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it. Geneva: WHO; 2020.

Zu ZY, Jiang MD, Xu PP, Chen W, Ni QQ, Lu GM, Zhang LJ. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perspective from China. Radiology. 2020; 296: E15–E25. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020200490.

Ramphul K, Mejias SG. Coronavirus Disease: A Review of a New Threat to Public Health. Cureus. 2020; 19: 3140. doi: 10.7759/cureus.7276.

Yu H, Wang XC, Li J, Qian X, Yu XF, Sun Z, Chen JF, Kao QJ, Wang HQ, Pan JC. Genomic analysis of a 2019-nCoV strain in the first COVID-19 patient found in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2020; 54(5): 486–490p. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn112150-20200217-00128.

Jin Z, Du X, Xu Y, Deng Y, Liu M, Zhao Y, et al. Structure of Mpro from COVID-19 virus and discovery of its inhibitors. Nature. 2020; 582: 289–293p. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2223-y.

Coronavirus Update (Live): 3,744,765 Cases and 258,884 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic. Worldometer. Available from:

coronavirus/ (accessed on 2020 May 06).

Tian S, Hu W, Niu L, Liu H, Xu H, Xiao SY. Pulmonary Pathology of Early-Phase 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pneumonia in Two Patients With Lung Cancer. J Thorac Oncol. 2020; 15(5): 700–704p.

Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Y, Liang WH, Ou CQ, He JX, et al. Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1708–1720p. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032 LK - &date=2020&auinit1=W&auinitm=-J.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 497–506p. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5.

Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, Tao Q, Sun Z, Xia L. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases. Radiology. 2020; 296(2): E32–E40. doi: 10.1148/radiol.2020200642.

Wang L, Wang Y, Ye D, Liu Q. A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020; 55(6): 105948. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948.

Broughton JP, Deng X, Yu G, Fasching CL, Singh J, Streithorst J, et al. Rapid Detection of 2019 Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Using a CRISPR-based DETECTR Lateral Flow Assay. medRxiv. 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.03.06.20032334.

Zhang F, Abudayyeh OO, Gootenberg JS, Sciences C, Mathers L. A protocol for detection of COVID-19 using CRISPR diagnostics. Bioarchive. 2020.

Khedkar PH, Patzak A. SARS-CoV-2: What do we know so far? Acta Physiol. (Oxf). 2020; 229(2): e13470. doi: 10.1111/apha.13470

Mathew JC. First Made-in-India COVID-19 test kit by Mylab gets commercial approval. Business Today; 2020.

Abbott. Abbot launches molecular point-of-care test to detect novel coronavirus in as little as five minutes. Abbot .Mediaroom Com; 2020.

Zhang J, Liu J, Li N, Liu Y, Ye R, Qin X, Zheng R. Serological detection of 2019-nCoV respond to the epidemic: A useful complement to nucleic acid testing. medRxiv. 2020. doi: 10.1101/


Wang J, Tang K, Feng K, Lv W. High Temperature and High Humidity Reduce the Transmission of COVID-19. SSRN Electron J. 2020. doi: 10.2139/


Chen N, Zhao M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet. 2020; 395(10223): 507–515p. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7.

Singhal T. A Review of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). Ind J Pediatr. 2020; 87(4): 281–286p. doi: 10.1007/s12098-020-03263-6.

Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. BioSci Trends. 2020; 14(1): 72–73p. doi: 10.5582/BST.2020.01047.

Smit C, Peeters MYM, van den Anker JN, Knibbe CAJ. Chloroquine for SARS-CoV-2: Implications of Its Unique Pharmacokinetic and Safety Properties. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2020; 59: 659–669p. doi: 10.1007/s40262-020-00891-1.

Huang J, Song W, Huang H, Sun Q. Pharmacological Therapeutics Targeting RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase, Proteinase and Spike Protein: From Mechanistic Studies to Clinical Trials for COVID-19. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(4): 1131p. doi: 10.3390/jcm9041131.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhong W, Xiao G. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res. 2020; 30: 269–271p. doi: 10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0.

Fu B, Xu X, Wei H. Why tocilizumab could be an effective treatment for severe COVID-19? J Translation Med. 2020; 164: doi: 10.1186/s12967-020-02339-3.

Channappanavar R, Fett C, Mack M, Ten Eyck PP, Meyerholz DK, Perlman S. Sex-Based Differences in Susceptibility to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection. J Immunol. 2017; 198(10): 4046–4053p. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1601896.

Robinson DP, Hall OJ, Nilles TL, Bream JH, Klein SL. 17 β-Estradiol Protects Females against Influenza by Recruiting Neutrophils and Increasing Virus-Specific CD8 T Cell Responses in the Lungs. J Virol. 2014; 88(9): 4711–4720p. doi: 10.1128/jvi.02081-13.

Whitfield J, Littlewood T, Soucek L. Tamoxifen administration to mice. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2015. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot077966.

Le TT, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Roman RG, Tollefsen S, Saville M, Mayhew S. The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2020; 19: 305–306p. doi: 10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5.

Smith TRF, Patel A, Ramos S, Elwood D, Zhu X, Yan J, et al. Rapid development of a synthetic DNA vaccine for COVID-19. PREPRINT Nat. (Under Rev.); 2020. doi: 10.21203/

Center for Health Security. Serology testing for COVID-19. USA: Johns Hopkins; 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.01.28.923011.