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Gingival Markers as a Tool for Predicting Orthodontic Treatment: A Systematic Review

Varun Udaya Kumar, Bharathwaj V.V, Prabu D., Rajmohan M., Dinesh Dhamodhar, Sindhu R., Sathiyapriya S.


To assess gingival markers as a tool for predicting orthodontic treatment is the main aim of this study. There is a continuous search for methodologies to asses or diagnose the periodontal associated disease, thereby providing a quicker and scientifically proven treatment plan. Clinical evaluation and radiographic reports were the main means of detection of any pathology or disease involving periodontium and the alveolar bone around it. Over the passage of time, newer methods of diagnosis have evolved. Improved understanding of the periodontal cascade is possible because of these methods. Sensitivity and specificity of the disease process is better understood. Gingival crevicular fluid which is an oral bio fluid is present in between the tooth surface and the gingival margin called the gingival sulcus. The bio markers in the gingival fluid is a tool to detect any changes in the structures surrounding tooth and the periodontal structure. Orthodontic treatment brings about enormous changes in the root surface and the periodontal structures. The GCF contains biomarkers which can be evaluated to diagnose and predict the success of the orthodontic treatment. Thus, the review aims at justifying GCF as an important tool in predicting the orthodontic treatment. PubMed, Liacs, Research Gate and Wiley online library were used to perform literature search. Totally 21 articles were screened, 13 articles were chosen when found eligible, and seven articles were taken for qualitative analysis. As per PRISMA guidelines, the review was reported. The criterion for the study was to include seven randomised controlled trials. Various cell mediators and enzymes present in GCF are monitored to understand the biological response to orthodontic forces. Markers include TGF-B, OC, ALP, TNfa, beta-2-microglobulin and epidermal growth factor. During orthodontic treatment, AST activity, and LDH activity are elevated. Analysis of different cell mediators and enzymes present in GCF helps in monitoring the biological response to orthodontic forces. Markers include OC, TGF-B, ALP, TNfa, epidermal growth factor, components PGE, beta 2-microglobulin glycosaminoglycan AST activity and LDH activity are elevated around the teeth which are orthodontically treated.

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