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A Review of Formation of Oxygen-Related Donors (ODs) and Impurity Concentration in Step-Annealed Czochralski Silicon

Ritu Agarwal


Czochralski (CZ) silicon being one of the two methods of silicon crystallization, the one that is used commercially for device fabrication, needs to be studied more closely. Hence, the Generation and behaviour of thermal donors (TD) and new donors (ND) as a result of pre-annealing at moderate temperature 480°C of carbon-rich boron-doped (p-type) CZ-silicon has been studied here, as function of annealing time by Hall studies and resistivity measurements in a step-annealing schedule. Annihilation of TDs and transformation of TDs into NDs is studied with successive annealing in steps of 10 hrs. It is seen that the conversion of incoming p-type sample to n-type is slow due to the compensation mechanism. Presence of carbon is found to suppress the growth of TDs, but to enhance TD annihilation. It is also seen that the increase in carrier concentration i.e. the TD formation is very low due to pre-annealing , but, the pre-annealing is seen to enhance ND formation.


CZ- Silicon, Thermal donor, New donor, interstitial oxygen, pre-annealing

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