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A Brief History of Psychoactive Substances Research: A KR-20 Formula-Based Case Study on the Chaotic Pyramid of Iraqi Scholars

Ahmed Mohammed-Lutfi Al-Imam


Following the American invasion in 2003, Iraq changed radically in terms of politics, religious beliefs, ethnographic and populational topography. Post-Saddam, Iraq witnessed unprecedented levels of organized crime, terrorism, and the widespread pragmatic persecution and assassination of Iraqi scientists and academic scholars, in addition to the illegal commerce of addictive and psychoactive substances. Iraq became an abductee of the worst scenario in the unstable Middle East where we observed military conflicts, civil wars promoted by militias and political parties, organized crime and terrorist activities, economic crisis, and widespread corruption at all levels of the governmental institutes, including scientific organizations. Hence, the future of Iraq is still uncertain or perhaps gloomy. Nonetheless, we invite academics and professionals specialized in managing disaster situations to bring our attention and to provide insightful opinions, including large-scale rescue plans for a radical change to support a bright future of our country, the modern Mesopotamia.

Keywords: Biomedical Research; developing countries; evidence-based medicine; internal consistency; Kuder–Richardson Formula 20, medical education; neurosciences; psychoactive substances; research metrics

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