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Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Associated Factors among HIV Exposed and Non-exposed Newborns in Kalomo, Zambia

Miyanda Petty, Mavis Ngalande Zulu


Human Immune Virus (HIV) does not have a direct effect on the progression of pregnancy. However, it influences various pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight (LBW), a major contributing factor to under five and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Aim: To determine the prevalence of LBW among HIV exposed and nonexposed newborns at Kalomo District Hospital from 2015 to 2018. Method: An institutional-based cross-sectional study conducted at Kalomo District Hospital which involved reviewing 200 deliveries from January 2015 to December 2018. Systematic sampling technique was employed from a population of 5200. Data collected from mothers’ charts was coded using EPI data version 4.6 and analyzed using SPSS 23. Results: The overall prevalence of LBW was 12.5%. The prevalence was slightly higher among unexposed babies 13% (95% CI: 0.06–0.20%) than exposed ones 12% (95% CI: 0.05–0.18%). The overall minimum and maximum birthweight were 1.2 Kgs and 4.9 Kgs and these were exposed babies. A two-sample test of proportions was 0.83 at 95% level of significance (P> 0.05). Showing no statistical difference in LBW prevalence between exposed and unexposed babies. The mothers’ age, status and parity had no influence on low-birth-weight outcome in neonates as (P>0.05). Conclusion: There was no statistical difference in prevalence of LBW between HIV exposed and unexposed babies. Maternal age, HIV status and parity had no association with neonatal LBW outcome whether in exposed or unexposed groups. Regular ante natal care (ANC) received by HIV-infected mothers can potentially reduce LBW outcomes in their infants.

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