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Unani and Conventional Perspective of Hypertension (Ḍaghṭ al-Dam Qawī )

Shameem Ahmad Rather, Aaqib Ashraf, Khalid Rahim Wani, Mahvish Mehraj, Arsha Noor


Hypertension is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. According to estimates, the risk of cardiovascular disorders such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease rises by at least a factor of two. In the Unani system of medicine, there is a clinical condition that resembles hypertension, known as "Imtila'." The buildup of bodily fluids, particularly in the blood vessels, is what it is known for. However, the specific term "Dagh al-Dam Qawi" does not appear in classical Unani literature, although the clinical manifestations of hypertension were recognized by Unani scholars. In terms of modern medicine, there are two types of hypertension—primary (essential) and secondary hypertension. Primary hypertension refers to cases where the cause is generally unknown. It is important to note that elevated blood pressure affects a significant number of individuals worldwide, with more than one billion people affected, and it is a leading cause of approximately 9.4 million deaths annually.

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