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Effect of Algal Toxin-Anatoxin on the Growth of Acorus calamus L.

Maya C., Naveen Kumar S.P.


The growth of Acorus calamus L. in Bheemasandra accession of Tumkur district, Karnataka state was studied. The roots of Acorus calamus L., are used to build immunity in the children. Narayan Das Prajapathi 2003 in his book “A handbook of medicinal plants” reports that, it has a stimulating, nervine and anti-spasmodic properties and acts as a rejuvenative for the brain and nervous system. It is used to promote cerebral circulation. It was found that the growth of blue green algae i.e., Nostoc and Anabaena, found growing in the water logged cultivated area of Acorus calamus L., was affecting the growth of Acorus. Bagchi in his research paper “Cyanobacterial Toxins” revealed that the phytochemical component Asarone was extracted both from the normal healthy plant of Acorus calamus L., as well as from the Nostoc and Anabaena affected Acorus calamus L.. It showed that the amount of Asarone was comparably less in affected plants but relatively more in normal healthy plants of Acorus calamus. By laboratory phytochemical analysis, i.e., oxidation of β-asarone with DDQ gave trans-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamaldehyde, which on treatment with p-toulene sulfonyl hydrazine provided corresponding α,β–unsatured hydrazone derivative. Reduction of α,β–unsatured hydrazone with sodium borohydride in acetic acid afforded asarone in 43% yield of Asarone. The anatomical details revealed that the algal toxin affected plants of Acorus calamus L., had lot of intra-cellular spaces in between vascular bundles and the pith region is damaged due to the toxic effect of blue green algae; Nostoc and Anabaena which is not observed in normal healthy plants. Since vascular bundles are affected in the roots of Acorus calamus L., the chemical bonds had deteriorated due to breakage of β-isomers of β-asarone by the methyl compound present in blue green algae. Dariuszzuba and Bogumilla Bryska revealed that the result exhibited very less amount of asarone, which was converted from its β form to γ form, was adulterated and toxic to the growth of plants. The plants possessed morphologically small leaves, thin roots and rudimentary inflorescence. The cells which were found to be devoid of chloroplasts and mitochondria were observed.

Abbrevations: DDQ: 2,3-Dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzo Quinone

Keywords: Narayan Das Prajapathi 2003 has mentioned the disorders in his book i.e., nervine, anti-spasmodic, rejuvenative, cerebral circulation, trans-2,4,5-trimethoxycinnamaldehyde, α,β–unsatured hydrazone, β-isomers, β-asarone, p-toulene sulfonyl hydrazine

Cite this Article
Maya C, Naveen Kumar SP. Effect of Algal Toxin-Anatoxin on the Growth of Acorus calamus L. Research and Reviews: Journal of Botany. 2015; 4(1): 26–32p.


Effect of Algal Toxin-Anatoxin on the Growth of Acorus calamus L. [Research & Reviews: Journal of Botany. 2015; 4(Issue 1): 26s–32s.]

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