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Synthesis of Brassinosteroid with Signaling and Response to Abiotic Stress: Review

Vipul G. Baldaniya, Ajay V. Narwade, Sagar K. Jadav


Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of plant steroid hormones with multiple roles in plant growth, development, and responses to stresses and signaling functions to promote cell expansion and cell division and plays a role in etiolation and reproduction. The entire synthetic pathway of sterol biosynthesis is brassinolide (BL) from the general campesterol synthesis pathway in Arabidopsis. Campesterol converts to BL in two different ways campesterol dependent or campesterol independent pathway. BRs are perceived by a plasma membrane-localized receptor and co-receptor complex including BRI1 and BAK1. The activated BRI1/BAK1 complex inactivates BIN2, which is one of the GSK3-like protein kinases and negatively regulates BR signaling, to promote the activity of two critical transcription factors, BES1 and BZR1 and BR responsive gene expression. In plants, BR deficiencies impair vital physiological processes and cause phenotypic abnormalities. A large number of studies show that BRs can positively influence plant responses to abiotic stresses such as heat, cold, drought, salinity, pesticides, and heavy metals.


Hormone, Brassinolide, Synthesis, Signalling, Stress

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