Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Study and Analysis of Different Milk Samples of Rajkot Region to Identify Adulterants

Nandkishor Virani, Pooja Chavda



Milk is an important sources of all basic nutrients such as protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamin and minerals. Although milk is readily digested and absorbed food because it contains nutrients which are needed for proper growth and maintenance of body. The present study was carried out keeping in view the recently emerging concern of different adulteration of natural milk with various illegal substances such as Ammonium sulphate, Benzoic acid, Cane sugar, Carbonates, Detergent, Formalin, Glucose, Salicylic acid, Skimmed milk powder and Starch to increases its marketability. This study is organized to be an adulterant based study instead of technique based one, where qualitative detection for most of the common adulterants is enlisted. In recent years, this study was aimed to analyze the hygienic status of milk adulteration sold at various cafes, small hotels and educational institutions in Rajkot. A total of ten samples were collected from different localities in Rajkot, India and tested for detection and extent of different adulteration in milk samples. Out of ten milk samples analyzed for adulteration and milk samples found to be adulterated with benzoic acid, detergent, skimmed milk powder, carbonates, formalin, cane sugar, ammonium sulphate and starch while other adulterants were absent. Following are the significant observations of the study: The extent of adulteration varied significantly with least percentage for Benzoic acid (20%) in Pasteurized milk samples while Ammonium sulphate and Formalin (20%) were present in local milk samples. In addition to this, the extent of adulteration varied significantly with highest percentages for Carbonates, detergents and skimmed milk powder (60%). Formalin and cane sugar (40%) were present in Pasteurized milk samples and local milk sample contain 60% cane sugar, carbonates, detergent, skimmed milk powder and Starch respectively. There are many chemical preservatives like pencillin, streptopenicillin and formaldehyde are added in milk due to increase shelf life of adulterated milk. This addition decreases the nutritive value of milk and these types of adulterants, preservatives and drugs in milk cause very serious health related problems. This paper deals with the analysis of milk samples from Rajkot region in Gujarat and its suburban areas to discover these adulterants.


Keywords: Adulterant, Qualitative analysis, pasteurized milk, Fresh milk.

Cite this Article

Nandkishor Virani, Pooja Chavda. Study and Analysis of Different Milk Samples of Rajkot Region to Identify Adulterants. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science & Technology. 2020; 9(1): 1–9p.

Full Text:



Gerd Bobe, Donald C. Beitz, Albert E. Freeman, Gary L. Lindberg, Separation and Quantification of Bovine Milk Proteins by Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998, 46(2), 458-463

Bordin, G., CordeiroRaposo, F., De la Calle, B., & Rodriguez, A. R, “Identification and quantification of major bovine milk proteins by liquid chromatography”, Journal of chromatography, Vol.928, Issue (1), 2001, pp 63-76.

Nascimento, C. F., Santos, P. M., Pereira-Filho, E. R., & Rocha, F. R. (2017). Recent advances on determination of milk adulterants. Food chemistry, 221, 1232-1244.

Durante, G., Becari, W., Lima, F. A., & Peres, H. E. (2015). Electrical impedance sensor for real-time detection of bovine milk adulteration. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(4), 861-865.

Srivastava, S. (2015). Food adulteration affecting the nutrition and health of human beings. Journal of Biological Sciences and Medicine, 1(1), 65-70.

Yang, V. L., & Batlle, D. (2008). Acute renal failure from adulteration of milk with melamine. The Scientific World Journal, 8, 974-975.

Singh, P., & Gandhi, N. (2015). Milk preservatives and adulterants: processing, regulatory and safety issues. Food Reviews International, 31(3), 236-261.

Sakaridis, I., Ganopoulos, I., Argiriou, A., & Tsaftaris, A. (2013). High resolution melting analysis for quantitative detection of bovine milk in pure water buffalo mozzarella and other buffalo dairy products. International dairy journal, 28(1), 32-35.

Ganopoulos, I., Sakaridis, I., Argiriou, A., Madesis, P., & Tsaftaris, A. (2013). A novel closed-tube method based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for authenticity testing and quantitative detection in Greek PDO Feta cheese. Food chemistry, 141(2), 835-840.

Alichanidis, E., G. Moatsou, and A. Polychroniadou. "Composition and properties of non-cow milk and products." In Non-bovine milk and milk products, pp. 81-116. Academic Press, 2016.

Lohumi, S., Lee, S., Lee, H., & Cho, B. K. (2015). A review of vibrational spectroscopic techniques for the detection of food authenticity and adulteration. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 46(1), 85-98.

González-Martín, I., & Hernández-Hierro, J. M. (2008). Detection and quantification of additives (urea, biuret and poultry litter) in alfalfas by nir spectroscopy with fibre-optic probe. Talanta, 76(5), 1130-1135.

da Silva Carvalho, A. C., Gennari, S. M., & Paschoalin, V. M. F. (2015). Consumption of animal products and frauds: DNA-based methods for the investigation of authenticity and traceability in dairy and meat-derived products–a review. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, 52(3), 183-194.

Motta, T. C., Hoff, R. B., Barreto, F., Andrade, R. B. S., Lorenzini, D. M., Meneghini, L. Z., & Pizzolato, T. M. (2014). Detection and confirmation of milk adulteration with cheese whey using proteomic-like sample preparation and liquid chromatography–electrospray–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Talanta, 120, 498-505.

Kasemsumran, S., Thanapase, W., & Kiatsoonthon, A. (2007). Feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy to detect and to quantify adulterants in cow milk. Analytical Sciences, 23(7), 907-910.

Santos, P. M., Pereira-Filho, E. R., & Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. (2013). Rapid detection and quantification of milk adulteration using infrared microspectroscopy and chemometrics analysis. Food chemistry, 138(1), 19-24.

Kamal, M., & Karoui, R. (2015). Analytical methods coupled with chemometric tools for determining the authenticity and detecting the adulteration of dairy products: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 46(1), 27-48.

Moncayo, S., Manzoor, S., Rosales, J. D., Anzano, J., & Caceres, J. O. (2017). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of milk for the detection of adulteration by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Food chemistry, 232, 322-328.

Bassbasi, M., Platikanov, S., Tauler, R., & Oussama, A. (2014). FTIR-ATR determination of solid non fat (SNF) in raw milk using PLS and SVM chemometric methods. Food chemistry, 146, 250-254.



  • There are currently no refbacks.