Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Analysis of Proximate Composition, Nutritional Contents and Enzymatic Activities of a Local Variety of Betel Leaf from Bangladesh

Md. Murad Hossain, Dhirendra Nath Barman, Nururshopa Eskander Shazada, Mohammed Mafizul Islam



Betel leaf is a medicinal herb that is commonly used as chewing food item to almost all classes of people in Bangladesh. In the present study, a local variety of betel leaf, Dudhswar, was investigated for analyzing the levels of proximate compositions, vitamins, minerals and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymatic activities. At mature stage, moisture, ash and fiber contents of the betel leaf were 85.40%, 3.15% and 2.11%, respectively. Moisture content decreased gradually with the advances in maturity while ash, fiber, protein and lipid contents increased steadily from premature to overmature stage. At mature stage, the leaf contained 3.86% protein and 0.71% lipid. The leaf also contained 3.22% total soluble sugar, 0.497% reducing sugar, 2.587% sucrose and 6.48% starch at mature stage. The sugar contents gradually increased from premature to overmature stage except for starch. The betel leaf was observed to contain vitamin A (5.32 mg%), vitamin B1 (35.27 µg%), vitamin B2 (0.75 µg%) and vitamin C (322 mg%). The mature leaf also contained 845.34 mg, 18.86 mg, 3154.44 mg, 55.43 mg, 4.77 mg and 9.48 mg per 100 g of fresh leaf, respectively for calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, zinc and iron. The betel leaf showed amylase, invertase, cellulase and β-galactosidase activities in all maturity stages. Betel leaf was therefore found to be a rich source of nutrients. Regular consumption of betel leaf would be advantageous to combat malnutrition as well as carbohydrate metabolism and other health-related disorders.



Betel leaf, enzymatic activities, nutrition, proximate composition, vitamin and mineral analysis

Full Text:



Parmar VS, Jain SC, Bisht KS, Jain R, Taneja P, Jha A, Tyagi OD, Prasad AK, Wengel J, Olsen CE. Phytochemistry of the genus Piper. Phytochemistry. 1997; 46(4): 597–673p.

Guha P. Betel leaf: the neglected green gold of India. Journal of Human Ecology. 2006; 19(2): 87–93p.

Chakraborty D, Shah B. Antimicrobial, antioxidative and antihemolytic activity of Piper betel leaf extracts. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011; 3(3): 192–199p.

Kar MK, Kumar S, Jena PK. Antioxidant activities of leaf extracts of some common betel varieties (Piper betle L.) available in Odisha. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2017; 8(4): 1776p.

Khatun MM, Sapon MA, Hossain MS, Islam MR. Antidiabetic activity of Piper betle in alloxan induced type 1 Diabetic model rats. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2016; 7(2): 675p.

Shaha RK, Sana N, Roy N, Biswas K, Mamun A. Partial purification and characterization of protease from germinating wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 2002; 5(3): 317–320p.

Desai B, Deshpande P. Effects of stage of maturity on some physical and biochemical constituents and enzyme activities of Banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) fruits. Mysore, India: Journal of Agricultural Sciences; 1978.

Hossain M, Barman D, Shazada N, Islam M. Evaluation of Proximate Composition, Vitamin and Mineral Contents of Aqueous Extract of Betel Leaf (Piper betel). Res & Rev: J Botany. 2020; 9(2): 1–10p.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis. Washington, DC: AOAC; 2004. 139p.

Achikanu C, Eze-Steven P, Ude C, Ugwuokolie O. Determination of the vitamin and mineral composition of common leafy vegetables in South Eastern Nigeria. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2013; 2(11): 347–353p.

Okwu D, Ndu C. Evaluation of the phytonutrients, mineral and vitamin contents of some varieties of yam (Dioscorea sp.). International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science. 2006; 2(2): 199–203p.

Okwu DE, Josiah C. Evaluation of the chemical composition of two Nigerian medicinal plants. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006; 5(4): 357–361p.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official methods of analysis, 15th ed. Washington D.C.: AOAC; 1990. 910–928p.

Jayaraman J. Laboratory Manual of Biochemistry. New Delhi: Wiley Eastern Ltd.; 1981. 180p 1981.

Miller GL. Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry. 1959; 31(3): 426–428p.

Rangana S. Manual of analysis of fruit and vegetable products. USA: Tata McGraw-Hill; 1979.

Hossain M, Barman D, Shazada N. Changes in the Activities of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes and their Association with Sugar Composition during Maturation of Betel Leaf. Int J Biochem Biomol. 2020; 6(1): 1–10p.

Mahadevan A, Sridhar R. Methods in physiological plant pathology. Madras: Sivakami Publication; 1982. 316p.

Lazan H, Ali ZM, Soh J, Talkah Z. The biochemical basis of differential ripening in mango. Acta Hortic. 1993; 341: 500–509p.

Sree TL, Vijayalakshmi K. Proximate composition, nutritional evaluation and mineral analysis in the leaves of an indigenous medicinal plant, Alternanthera sessilis. International Journal of Health Sciences & Research. 2018; 8(7): 55–62p.

Vernekar AA, Vijayalaxmi K. Nutritional composition of fresh and dehydrated betel leaves. The Pharma Innovation Journal. 2019; 8(4): 602–605p.

Shah SK, Garg G, Jhade D, Patel N. Piper betle: Phytochemical, pharmacological and nutritional value in health management. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2016; 38: 181–189p.

Chanda S, Hossain M, Uddin M, Islam M, Sarwar AG. Fiber Yield, Physical and Biochemical Properties of Three Species of Sesbania. Bangladesh Agronomy Journal. 2018; 21(2): 79–85p.

Cooper GM. The central role of enzymes as biological catalysts. In: The Cell: A Molecular Approach, 2nd Edn. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.

Sarma C, Rasane P, Kaur S, Singh J, Singh J, Gat Y, Garba U, Kaur D, Dhawan K. Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of selected varieties of Piper betle L.(Betel leaf). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2018; 90(4): 3871–3878p.

Muro E, Atilla-Gokcumen GE, Eggert US. Lipids in cell biology: How can we understand them better? Molecular Biology of the Cell. 2014; 25(12): 1819–1823p.

Khatun S, Absar N, Ashraduzzaman M. Changes in physico-chemical compositions and activities of some hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes in the two types of sajna (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves at different maturity levels. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology. 2003; 8(1): 6–11p.

Alam M, Rahman MH, Mamun M, Ahmad I, Islam K. Enzyme activities in relation to sugar accumulation in tomato. Proceedings-Pakistan Academy of Sciences. 2006; 43(4): 241p.

Zhu J, Qi J, Fang Y, Xiao X, Li J, Lan J, Tang C. Characterization of sugar contents and sucrose metabolizing enzymes in developing leaves of Hevea brasiliensis. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2018; 9: 58p.

Mohan T, Rajesh P, Zuhra K, Vijitha K. Magnitude of Changes in the Activity of Amylases and Cellulase and its Association with the Biochemical Composition during Maturation and Ripening of Banana (Musa spp.). Biochemistry and Physiology. 2014; 3: 127p.

Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, Cragg GM, Levine M, Moss J, White JD. Encyclopedia of dietary supplements. USA: CRC Press; 2010.

González MJ, Rosario-Pérez G, Guzmán AM, Miranda-Massari JR, Duconge J, Lavergne J, Fernandez N, Ortiz N, Quintero A, Mikirova N. Mitochondria, energy and cancer: The relationship with ascorbic acid. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine: Official Journal of the Academy of Orthomolecular Medicine. 2010; 25(1): 29p.

Soetan K, Olaiya C, Oyewole O. The importance of mineral elements for humans, domestic animals and plants: A review. African Journal of Food Science. 2010; 4(5): 200–222p.

Nadeeshani H, Wimalasiri K, Samarasinghe G, Silva R, Madhujith T. Evaluation of the nutritional value of selected leafy vegetables grown in Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research. 2018; 29(3): 255p.

Seal T. Determination of nutritive value, mineral contents and antioxidant activity of some wild edible plants from Meghalaya State, India. Asian J Appl Sci. 2011; 4(3): 238–246p.

Kavanová M, Lattanzi FA, Grimoldi AA, Schnyder H. Phosphorus deficiency decreases cell division and elongation in grass leaves. Plant Physiology. 2006; 141(2): 766–775p.

Norouzi S, Adulcikas J, Sohal SS, Myers S. Zinc stimulates glucose oxidation and glycemic control by modulating the insulin signaling pathway in human and mouse skeletal muscle cell lines. PLoS One. 2018; 13(1): e0191727.

Glew R, VanderJagt D, Bosse R, Huang YS, Chuang LT, Glew R. The nutrient content of three edible plants of the Republic of Niger. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2005; 18(1): 15–27p.

Ware A, Shaikh FK, Harke SN. Detection and Comparative Analysis of Amylase Activity from Leaves, Seeds and Stem of Purslane (Portulacaoleracea). International Journal of Advance Research in Science and Engineering. 2017; 6(9): 793–798p.

Horacio P, Martinez-Noel G. Sucrose signaling in plants: A world yet to be explored. Plant Signaling & Behavior. 2013; 8(3): e23316.

Jayasekara S, Ratnayake R. Microbial Cellulases: An Overview and Applications. In: Pascual AR, Martin MEE, (Eds). Cellulose. UK: IntechOpen; 2019. 3056p.

Dagbagli S, Goksungur Y. Optimization of b-galactosidase production using Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL Y-8279 by response surface methodology. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 2008; 11(4): 11–12p.

Nivetha A, Mohanasrinivasan V. Mini review on role of β-galactosidase in lactose intolerance. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering; 2017. 022046.


  • There are currently no refbacks.